Apoptosis: a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself 

cDNA: DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase and the enzyme DNA polymerase, it does not contain introns.

Cell Differentiation: process by which a less specialized cell develops to become more specialized with specific form and function.

Chimeric:  organism composed of two genetically distinct types of cells.

Cis-regulatory element: or cis-element is a region of DNA or RNA that regulates the expression of genes located on that same molecule of DNA

DNA construct: an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is going to be "transplanted" into a target tissue or cell.

Exon: A portion of a gene that contains sequence that codes for the protein

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product, usually proteins, or RNA.

Gene Promoter: A regulator region of DNA a short distance from the 5' end of a gene that acts as the binding site for RNA polymer

Homologous Recombination: DNA exchange between identical chromosome regions on homologous chromosomes that occur naturally during meiosis.

Homology: likeness in structure between parts of different organisms 

In vitro: an artificial environment outside of the living organism where biological reactions can take place.

In vivo:  events taking place in a living organism

Intron: A non-coding sequence located between exons of a gene.

Ligand: A molecule, ion, or atom bonded to the central metal atom of a coordination compound

Locus: specific location of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome

Mutagenesis: a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner, resulting in a mutation.

PCR: A technique for amplifying DNA sequences in vitro by separating the DNA into two strands and incubating it with primers and DNA polymerase.

Promotor: A site in a DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA.

Pronucleus: The haploid nucleus of sperm or egg before fertilization

Pseudo-pregnant: false pregnant

Recombinant DNA: (rDNA) is a form of artificial DNA that is created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together.

Reporter Gene: genes used to show whether a certain gene has been expressed in the targeted cell

Retrovirus: RNA virus that is duplicated in a host cell using the reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome.

Skin carcinogenesis: skin cancer

Southern Blot: A technique for separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe.

Trans-regulatory elements: diffusible factors, usually proteins, that may modify the expression of genes distant from the gene that was originally transcribed to create them.

Vector: vehicle used to transfer genetic material to a target cell



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